Damascus is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic and the center of Damascus province. It's one of the oldest cities in the world, with an almost 11,000-year history, and the oldest city-capital in the world. It has been the capital of the Syrian region since 635.
|(Arabic: Damascus) |
Photo collection of Damascus
Coat of arms of Damascus
A map of the most prominent streets and neighborhoods in Damascus
|Title||Al-Sham, Al-Fayha, Al-Yasmeen, Sham Sharif, Bab Al-Kaaba|
|History of establishment||9,000 B.C.|
|capital of|| |
Ayala Damascus (1517-1865)
State of Syria (1865-1918)
|area||105 km² (40.5 miles²) km²|
|height||680 m (2,231 ft)|
|population census||1,949,000 inhabitants (2013 estimates count)|
|total population||3,000,000 people|
|population density||16,704 inhabitants/km 2|
|Twin City|| |
Emirate of Dubai
|Daylight Time||+3 Greenwich|
|official site||Official Damascus Governorate Site|
|Damascus Photo Exhibition - Wikimedia Commons|
There are several theories in explaining the meaning of the name Damascus, provided by the widespread fact that the term is old in the sense of Earth; This is due to the city's geographical location in a fertile plain drained by the Barda River and its many branches, forming the Ghouta of Damascus; The location of the city is also distinguished by the presence of Mount Quissoun. The name of Damascus was limited to the old city until the Middle Ages, when the city began to expand outside it. Damascus now has 15 residential areas connected to its surroundings from the suburbs to form what is known as Greater Damascus.
The city is the administrative center of Damascus province, while most suburbs are administratively part of Rif Dimashq governorate. According to 2013 statistics, Damascus has a population of 1.9 million, making it the second largest city in Syria after Aleppo. The population of Greater Damascus (according to the 2010 census) is 4.4 million, making it the largest population in Syria, Bar Al-Sham and among the ten largest cities in the Arab world after Cairo, Baghdad and Riyadh; The city is 105 km 2; The majority of Damascus's traditional inhabitants are ethnic Syrian Arabs and Sunni Muslims. Throughout history, Damascus has been inhabited by small groups of European, mainly Balkan, and Arab origins, for various reasons, most of which have been consistent with the fabric of the city over time; Damascus also has a large number of citizens from other Syrian cities and provinces, as permanent residents. As the capital, Damascus is home to all important ministries and headquarters in the Syrian State, including the Parliament and the Supreme Constitutional Court.
Since ancient times, Damascus has been known as a commercial city, frequented by caravans for convenience or shopping. The city has been one of the stations of the Silk Road, the sea road, the Syrian Hajj procession, and caravans bound for Persia, Asia Minor, Egypt, or the Arabian Peninsula. This prominent economic role played a role in enriching the city and turning it into a cultural and political destination as well. Throughout its history, the city has been the center of a number of countries, the most important of which is the Umayyad state - the largest Islamic state in terms of space in history. The Damascus economy is currently based on trade, tourism and industrial activity. In 2010, Damascus was considered one of the best tourist destinations in the world, but the Syrian crisis, which began in 2011, led to a major decline in the city's economy and the emergence of social and economic crises. As of September 2019, nearly eight years after the Civil War, Damascus was designated the least livable city in the world, by the Economic Intelligence Unit.
It is also known by many names, including Sham and Yasmeen City; It has taken a prominent regional position in the arts, literature and politics; The authors, poets and travelers were well-received, and many of the poetry and literary texts were described, including Yaqout al-Hamawi, who wrote:
|I didn't describe heaven as anything, except in Damascus like him.|
Nizar Qabbani says:
|Allah has decreed that you be Damascus||With you start and finish the configuration|
|teach us the Arabic jurisprudence Sha||you are the statement and the showing|
|The river of history rises in Syria||Does the date cancel the introduction of dough?|
One of the oldest documents mentioned in Damascus throughout history is the city of Ebla, which returns to about 2000 BC and is mentioned under the name Damaski. It was also mentioned more than once in the ancient Egyptian texts, most notably the tablets of Thutmose III from the 15th century B.C., where they were mentioned by the name of Temsak, and in the letters of Tal El-Amarna by the name of Temashki. The Assyrians called it Damascus and sometimes they used the name Emery Shaw as well, and the Aramaic called Dimashqu, and Dharmysak or Darmystic in some Aramaic texts, which could mean "Dar/Musaardhi" or "Waffak" or "Limestone Land." From it in the Antique era, it is known in Latin, including the contemporary European languages, as a certain twist of pronunciation to Damasks (Latin: Damasus).
After the Islamic conquest of Damascus, the city was known for many names, including Damascus and Damascus as distinguished from the city of Granada in Andalusia, which was also called Arab Damascus, with the pillars in its many buildings, the Kaaba Gate for its presence on the road to Mecca, the Al-Fayha for its vastness and its delicacy, in addition to several other names and titles, including Damascus Damascus Hogs Muslim bastard. It's also called Sham, the way the branch is named after the original. There is a big dispute and many assumptions about the origin of the name of Damascus itself and the way it is derived from Arabic; The supporters of the Arabic root of the name see it as the term Damascus in the old Arabic, "If I Go Faster", and it is said that the city is named because "its sons are tearing at the pieces, i.e. they are speeding up the construction of it." Most historians have returned the term because it is Syriac, or Latine, not Arabic. They see that it is derived from the word Domx After the Greek leader Damas, who founded the city, and because of the mention of the city in the letters of Tel el-amarna and Karnak in Egypt in hieroglyphics under the name Damascus and Damascus; It was also thought that the word derived from the name of one of the prophet's grandsons, Noah Madhach.
Nowadays, Damascus is known in the Syrian dialect as Sham; The most famous of these titles are Jasmine, Jalaq and Al-Fayhaa, as well as a number of titles that are less prevalent, such as Dora Al-Sharq, Shama Al-Dunya, Sham Sharif, which were officially deployed in Ottoman Syria, Kanana Allah, Musqa.
|Old Damascus *|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
Office of Amber
|Standards||i, ii, iii, iv, vi|
|area||Arab World **|
(Third meeting of the World Heritage Committee)
|* The name of the site as it is on the World Heritage Site |
** UNESCO World Regions Division
According to the excavations, which were concentrated in Ghouta and the Bardi River valley, the Damascus region has been inhabited by humans for 10,000 years, during the period of hunting and transportation. In addition to the effects of Homo sapiens on the remains of the Neanderthals, the most prominent effects of that period were axes, stone museums and other hand tools. However, the period of extinction of the Neanderthals was 4000000,030 The history of the Middle East in general and the history of the whole Middle East in general, have been so uncertain for more than 30,000 years. Then, human and urban antiquities reappeared as the agricultural age entered about 30,000 years ago. Many villages and primitive settlements were found, especially in the Tal Al-Aswad area and Tal Al-Gharrafa. The first residents built small-sized oval huts that built clay, milk, and reed, which were abundant materials in the swamps and lakes that surrounded the city, and dried up with the succession of eras.
According to the analysis of carbon 14, the site of Tel Al-Ramad dates back to the second half of the 7th millennium BC and may be about 6300 BC. The human settlement witnessed a life development. The stone was used in its construction and its streets were paved with stones. Even though the excavators were not able to accurately imagine the art, social life and religion of Damascus during that period, the discoveries indicate the existence of a kind of art and a complete social life in both sites. The settlement of Tal al-Gharbeya was destroyed in the 5th millennium BC. However, during the same period a third settlement was built north of Ghouta. Researchers point out that a number of residents have returned to move instead of settling, as evidenced by the remains of the poorly-manufactured houses, which indicate continuous movement between the areas and the abundance of animal bones, which indicates a tendency for grazing. Carbon 14 analysis indicates that the development of urban mobility in the city may start from the second millennium BC. Damascus was part of the ancient province of Amoro during the Hyksos period, between 1720 and 1570 B.C., and some ancient Egyptian records of the Amarna letters about 1350 B.C. remember that they were called at that time Dimasko, and that they were under the control of the King of ancient Biriazza. Around 1260 B.C., Damascus, as well as the rest of the country, became a battleground between the Hittites from the north and the Egyptians from the south. The battle ended with the signing of a treaty between Hatuselli III and Ramses II, which handed over control of the Damascus area to Ramesses II in 1259 BC. Around 1,200 B.C., sea peoples arrived in Damascus, marking the end of the Bronze Age in the region and the entry into the Iron Age; Damascus was not at the end of the picture, but it affected a number of population centers in old Syria.
The emergence of Damascus as a city is partly due to the period of Syria, Syria, around the 12th century BC; The Aramaics established a series of kingdoms allied to one another. The Biblical Aram of Damascus was one of them; And it goes back to that period when Damascus acquired the oldest forms of its current name, Dimacho. The Aramaics established a water distribution system, built canals and irrigation canals on the outskirts of the Bardi River, which contributed to the growth of agriculture and the increase in the population, especially from the delegations of the Aram Zawbah tribes from the Bekaa Valley adjacent to Damascus, and their stability in the city. This made Damascus part of their center in the Bekaa until the 10th century BC, when Izron managed to topple the year 9 9 950 the founders of the independent entity known as the Syrians of Damascus; It has worked to expand and monopolize trade routes with the East, and has fought the Kingdom of Israel, especially in the era of Ben Kod I (880-841 B.C.). Under his successor, Hazael became Bashan, now known as Horan, his Kingdom; However, Ben Hafudh II failed to blockade Samaria and fell in captivity, forcing him to open the trade space for Jews in Damascus; In any case, the threat posed by the Assyrian Empire was one of the most important reasons for the peace treaty between Syria and the Kingdom of Israel, to confront the common danger to both.
In 853 BC, King Haddaiser of Damascus led by the Syrian-Syrian Syrian Syrian Alliance, which included forces from the north of the kingdom of Hama and forces provided by King Ahab of Israel; Fighting raged in the Karakir battle against the Assyrian army, which ended with the victory of the Syrian Alliance. Haddizer was killed by his successor Hazael II, and the Kingdom of Israel's alliance collapsed. Syria Damascus tried to invade Israel again, but the second Assyrian invasion led to the cancelation of the plan. Hazael II ordered a retreat to the fortified part of Damascus, while the Assyrians looted what remained of the kingdom, but failed to enter the same city of Damascus, declaring their sovereignty over Horan and the Bekaa. By the eighth century BC, the Assyrian Empire had seized all of Syria's Aramaic kingdoms, including Damascus; Despite the political unrest and revolutions, the city has been known as a commercial and cultural center in Syria; It flourished as a commercial convoy site to the east and south; The Aramaic language and culture did not fade, but spread to the eastern parts of the Fertile Crescent; By 605 B.C., Assyrian control had faded after Nineveh fell into the hands of the Medes and the Babylonians, who had inherited Syrian rule, at least some of which had become part - including Damascus - within the control of the Pharaoh Nechathu II, for a short time, but the latter was soon restored. The city became part of their empire after the rise of the Khomeini.
In Antique Syria
For about 1,000 years, starting at 331 B.C., Damascus was part of Antique Syria, mainly through the Seleucid state and then the Roman state of Syria; For some periods, Damascus was part of the Syrian autonomous kingdoms, the first-century Nabatean State, and the Kingdom of Palmyra in the third century. The people of Damascus called on the Nabati Al-Harith III in 1984 to protect them from the bandits, thus reaching its maximum expansion. Damascus gained the status of a free city, which was exempt from taxes and encouraged trade, and formed the Ten Cities Pact or the Decapolis Pact starting from the first century B.C; Under Emperor Hadrian, Metropolis was given any major city, though not the center of state until 400, when the Byzantine divided the country into four states, under which Damascus was the capital of the second state of Phoenicia. Perhaps the biggest disaster in the city was the Persian invasion of 614, led by Kassar II, which ended in 629 when Hercules expelled the Persians in Syria.
Damascus remained a Syriac language and culture in the Antique era, despite the spread of the Greek in it, especially in the upper classes. The language of the Cultural Language did not replace the original language, as happened in many areas, especially in the Sahel. Greek-Syrian personalities emerged from Damascus, such as Apollodor; Damascus, in the period of Antique Syria, witnessed a period of reconstruction, planning for a Hippodrome style and expansion. It included Greek capitals, theaters, horse racing yards, baths, victory arches, and luxurious burial sites. During the pre-Christmas period, the worship of the Aramaic God Ahad—the opposite of the Roman Jupiter, and the Greek Zeus, as part of the Divine Conciliation Policy—spread in the city; He was described as the master of Damascus, and his name was praised as the temple of Jobs; According to the Book of Acts of the Apostles, St. Paul was converted to Christianity near Damascusfrom which he began missionary activity, after being put into a basket of one of the wall's windows, as the ruler wanted to arrest and kill him.
In September, 635 AD, Khaled Bin Al-Waleed opened Damascus a ladder after six months of siege, granting safety to its residents according to the agreement reached between him and her Bishop Sargon Bin Mansour; the instrument under which other Syrian cities surrendered; The following year, 636, the decisive battle for Yarmouk took place in the history of Fattouh al-Sham. After the conquest, the governors settled in Damascus, moving the country's capital from Antioch to Damascus; After four years of conquest, Moaouya the son of Abi Sufyan was appointed governor over Damascus, succeeding his brother Yazid bin Abi Sufyan; During the fitna of Othman's death, Mouawia declared rebellion against Caliph Ali Bin Abi Talib, and he gained independence from the rule of Damascus, and extended his influence in Egypt through his agent Amr Bin Al-As. After five years of fighting, the war in the year of the Group ended with the declaration of the Umayyad State, with Damascus as its capital; Muawiya thus ruled Damascus for forty years, twenty of which are as governor, and twenty as successor.
During the "Second Fitna", whose leader in Damascus was Yazid bin Mu'awiya, he transferred to Damascus Ras Al-Hussein and a number of the women of the family, including Sayyida Zainab; A number of the wives of the Prophet and his companions also settled in Damascus and were buried there. During the struggle between the Umayyad family's branches over power, the battle of Marj Rahat took place near Damascus between the followers of the Umayyad and the followers of Abdullah bin Al-Zubair, who confirmed the Marwani house and its leader Marwan bin Al-Hakam; Following his rule, especially in the rule of his son Abd Al-Malik, and his two grandsons, Al-Waleed and Hisham, Damascus lived its finest days, as the state expanded and collection money poured into its capital, many palaces, baths, and other public places. Historians say that if people met each other in the days of Al-Waleed and Hisham, they talked about the arts of construction, and all that can be deduced from sources of A beautiful look after I was blessed with excellent status, good fortune, and economic prosperity. Historians tell of the basins, fountains, and caps that were strewn on the streets, doors of public buildings, markets, squares, and city gates; Al-Emara House, built by Mu'awiya as its headquarters and also called the "Green House" because of its green title, is one of the first and most prominent Umayyad urban scenes in the city. The Umayyad built two large hospitals inside the city and a horse house.
Al-Waleed built the Umayyad Mosque and adorned it with mosaics, as did Aleppo. The Umayyad Mosque was the only mosque in Damascus, along with two small worshippers outside the walls. As a result of this boom, a number of tribes settled on the banks of the Barda River, and the Yazid River was built from the Barda River to provide irrigation for a larger area of land; Al-Waleed also took interest in roads and linked cities to each other, especially between Damascus and Badia. The Umayyad built more than 20 palaces for hiking and sports, and the city witnessed a cultural renaissance simultaneously. After the death of Hisham, the state was fractured, and the weak caliphs were punished. Bloody sedition broke out between the Arabs from Al-Qaisiya and Yemen, and the Umayyad House took off its own successors. Marwan Bin Mohamed, the last Umayyad of the Umayyad, was transferred to Haran. The state's declaration did not cease to fall apart during his reign.
The Abbasid Revolution continued its progress in state property after it defeated the Umayyad in the Battle of the Zab in 749, until it imposed a siege on Damascus that lasted for one and a half months. The besieged area was then able to dig the wall at Bab al-Saghir, and opened the city to the Abbasid, who committed a lot of murders, looting and destruction. The city was neglected during the first Abbasid era, and it paid no attention to several revolutions against the Abbasid rulers, including Othman al-Azdi's revolution in 753, the 850 revolution against al-Mutawakkil because he practiced "subjugation" of its people, and 868 led by Issa bin al-Sheik, who declared it an independent state that lasted until 896. He was entrusted God to eliminate the state Issa Bin Al-Sheik, which is what he did. Civil strife and wars between al-Qaysiyah and al-Yamani also broke out in the city between 792 and 796, and in 802. Al-Mutawakkil wanted to move the capital of the caliphate from Samarra to Damascus, and wrote to his deputies. He stayed there for only two months, but returned to Samarra under the pressure of Turkish statesmen. The Abbasiyeis did not leave any significant architectural mark in the city, except as a number of historians have argued that the Treasurer's dome in the Umayyad Mosque was built in succession to Muhammad al-Mahdi in 774.
During the 10th century, which was characterized by the weakness of the state in Baghdad and the spread of independent states in its profits, the Tawilonites ruled Damascus until 906, and the Ichidis, and the Byzantine, in their reign, were subjected to raids by Qarmatians and Byzantine; The 968 Hamdanis were followed by the Hymns when the Hymns returned to Damascus in 967. They were part of their Fatimid successors until 947, when the people of Damascus sought help from the Turkish leader Aftikkin, who arrived in Homs. Twelve battles took place between Aftkin and Fatimi Jawhar. The Fatimi; However, they returned after a short period of time, and the days of the Fatimid had deteriorated with the result of the high prices. The number of the inhabitants decreased dramatically, the revolutions of 982 and 999, and the rule of the Fatimids continued until 1075 when the Seljuq was controlled by Tuce Ben Alab Arslan and his son Daq; The Seljuk has been interested in the religious aspect in Damascus, especially after the spread of the Shia sect in the wake of the Fatimid takeover of the city. They have set up a number of religious schools for free, and have built bamarstanes.
After the success of the first crusade in establishing emirates on the Levant, the borders of the kingdom of Beit al-Maqdis reached the southern outskirts of Damascus in the Golan, and Horan was subjected to many raids by them, which threatened the security and economy of Damascus because Horan is the source of its wheat; Damascus entered into a truce with the kingdom of Beit al-Maqdis in 1110. In 1129, the Seljuk accused the Ismailis of treason and killed 6,000 Ismailis of the city with their leaders; In 1132, Ismailia's revenge was witnessed by the assassination of Tajal-Din Al-Buri, the governor of Damascus Al-Saljuki; Salibiu Quds took advantage of the situation, equipped with an army of 60,000 soldiers, to attack the city. Taj al-Din Puri made a coalition with Imad-ad-Din Zanki to prevent the army's progress, which he succeeded in achieving; In 1148, the Second Crusade hit a siege around Damascus, but it failed with the efforts of Aleppo's governor, Noureddine Zanki, who in 1154 deposed Syrian Unity under his rule; After the death of Noureddine and the demise of the Zenica state, Damascus followed the rule of Salah al-Din and the Ayyubid, which included Syria, Egypt, Hejaz, and Yemen; However, after his death in 1193, his country was divided among the heirs. Damascus was an independent Ethiopian state between 1193-1201, 1218-1245, and 1250-1260. During the Crusades, Damascus gained a reputation among the crusaders. Silk, ornamented wood, restaurants and other luxury goods were transported through Damascus and from there to Europe.
Reign of the Royal Sultanate
The Mamluk, who ruled the country starting from 1250, considered Damascus the second city after Cairo for its war position and its rich lands; They considered it the center of the prosecution of the Levant. In the 13th century, Damascus witnessed the Mongols' successive invasions, the most intense of which was the Ghazan invasion in 1300. According to the ancient historians, the city's inhabitants were killed, and its libraries and markets were burned. However, they failed to storm its castle because of its location and its double wall.
In 1402, the Mongols launched a second campaign against Damascus under the leadership of Timorlenk. The city, including the Umayyad Mosque, was burnt down and many craftsmen, craftsmen and scientists were taken captive to Samarkand, contributing to its cultural renaissance. During the era of Sultan Barsabai (1422-1438), the Levant between Aleppo and Al-Kark was afflicted with a famine epidemic, until people died of hunger or plague. Perhaps the lack of attention given to the owners to agriculture would have contributed to its spread. Nicolas Ziade says that if Damascus was not rich with water and land fertility, prosperous life would not have been quickly In addition, except for the Citadel of Damascus, whose guards are manned by a certain Cairo garrison, the neighborhoods of Damascus and its surrounding neighborhoods were subject to the invasion of the Bedouins and bandits. This led the residents of the neighborhoods to arm themselves and organize teams of the neighborhood's residents to defend the neighborhood. Then these forces have their own self-security unions; Al-Sioufi is also restricted to the position of the city's sheik, whose members are passed on as heirs. One of the functions of the city's sheik is to represent the residents and their demands before the governor, and to mediate with them in various cases. In spite of that, the city's population was growing steadily, and at that time the Salhiya district was the largest, in addition to the emergence of new neighborhoods and suburbs on the outskirts of the city's outskirts. In addition to demographic growth, the city experienced economic growth during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. They managed six major hospitals, known as the Pembarstan, during their reign. Since the 15th century, Damascus has become an important center for the Sufis.
In Ottoman Syria
Damascus was given special importance during the time of the Ottoman Empire and was dubbed "Sham el-Sharif"; After the battle of Marj Dabiq, Sultan Salim I entered Damascus on September 26, 1516. His first work was the restoration of the Umayyad Mosque; Sultan Salim spent two periods in Damascus, the first in 1516, and the second after returning from Egypt in 1517, where he spent most of his time organizing the state's administrative affairs. In 1524, Damascus under the leadership of Wali Jan Bardi al-Ghazali, joined other cities such as Homs and Hama.
Between the Mamluk and Ottoman eras, writing continued on the children's education and discipline books. We remember from the books of that era, Ibn Hajar Al-Hitmi (974-909 A.H./1566-1503 A.D.), which was placed in Mecca with his famous book, "Editing the article in terms, and morals, and benefits needed by children's writers. In his book, Al-Hitmi outlines the knowledge that children's educators need in education, and presents the most important educational principles that guide the work of educators in science.
The subsequent Damascene historians (M1546) stood against the spread of immoral conduct in the previous century, which was denounced, rejected, and criticized for the position of political authority, especially with regard to committing obscenities, drinking alcohol, practicing sodomy, and the spread of prostitutes in the markets. The son of Toulon Al-Salehi (P:953H/1546 AD) reveals that the love girls are their own houses; The events of Jumada I 885 AH, July 1480 AD, it was mentioned that "the homes of the error girls were destroyed between the Al-Tawba Mosque and the Al-Jadeed Mosque after I bought the qaysariya from the merchant son of Al-Saqr for thirty ashrafieh. Then the girls of error were moved near the Greek school"
But the Ottomans did not lack interest in the city. They built the Sulaimaniyah Tekia, and they renovated the Salehiya neighborhood, which is still the same today, as one of the Ottomans' early architectural achievements in Syria. The governors were not of the Ottoman era, so in the first 148 years of the Ottoman rule, Damascus was punished with no less than 138 and no more than three years of his job Thirty brigades; Between 1815 and 1895, there were 61 consecutive and up to an average of about a year and a half. The governors were always in conflict with neighboring states. For example, a war broke out between the Damascus and Damascus Valley in 1664 and 1667.
According to the testimony of French travelers Laurent Darevio in the 17th century, the people of Damascus love to live in luxury and buy luxury furniture. The city's houses are very beautiful, and regarding trade, Dravio wrote that Damascus is one of the main markets in the Ottoman Empire. In addition to commercial convoys, the city, which was a gathering point for Muslim pilgrims, also relied on hajj convoys to secure the abundance of cash and stimulate sales and purchases. Unfortunately, Hajj convoys in the mid-eighteenth century were attacked by Bedouins or by Wahhabi fighters, and the failure of mostly successive governors to secure the pilgrims. Perhaps the biggest incident occurred in 1757 when the convoy carrying 60,000 pilgrims was looted. As a result of the lack of security during that period, the number of pilgrims has dropped to about 2,000, which has had a very bad impact on the economy of Damascus.
In 1724, the state of Damascus entrusted Ismail Pasha al-Azm with "the good and the state the city knew in the Ottoman era". He used to build the palace of the bone, which Philip considered to be the "most magnificent Arab monument in the 18th century". In 1771, the city entered the possession of the wali of Akka Dahir al-Omar. In 1782, Ahmad Pasha became the butcher and ruler of Syria, and his rule was harsh. He oppressed the people with taxes and doubled the tax on merchants, and Damascus and its land was plunged into drought and drought in 1793. When he was reappointed governor in 1803, the people of Damascus closed the door of the city in the face of his representative Suleiman Pasha. Therefore he imposed heavy fines and confiscated their property 804 before the successive Ottoman rulers returned to run their affairs.
In February 1831, Damascus revolted after the governor announced a new tax that was considered exorbitant by the residents of the poor majority neighborhood of Al-Maidan was the nucleus of the uprising. The governor and his chief entourage surrounded the castle.
In the same year, Ibrahim Basha entered Damascus in the name of his father and the governor of Egypt, Mohamed Ali Pasha. Ibrahim Pasha's rule in Damascus was a reformer in all aspects, despite his short period of time in power. He was forced to withdraw under the pressure of major military powers on September 17, 1840. In 1845, the Bedouins looted the Damascus Merchant convoy heading to Baghdad. It was composed of 3,000 camels, and the city's merchants went bankrupt. The trade route with Baghdad went through Aleppo and Mosul, three times longer than it was before. In 1851, the system of forced recruitment was implemented for the first time after the fall of Mohammed Ali's rule, with negative effects, represented in terms of immigration, both internal and foreign and the retreat of the economy and division; Damascus witnessed the 1860 massacres that led to the killing of thousands of Christians; The last installment of the 19th century was the era of Nahda, especially during the era of the reformed rulers such as Medhat Pasha. Damascus became one of the squares of the Arab renaissance with which newspapers and magazines were established.
During World War I, Damascus suffered from the famine that swept the country and the waves of migration, in addition to being the headquarters of the Fifth Ottoman Army. The military ruler, Jamal Pasha, abused the manslayer who established a martial law judgment in Damascus, and reached the peak of his decision to execute seven dignitaries on May 6, 1916, which turned into a day for martyrs. On September 30, 1918, Ottoman troops and the Ottoman governor withdrew from Damascus, marking the end of the Ottoman Syria era. The next day, it was received by the Army of the Great Arab Revolution, and later by Faisal Bin Al-Hussein, who was installed in Damascus on 8 March 1920 as king of Syria (which meant the whole of the Levant) during the Declaration of Independence and the establishment of the Syrian Arab Kingdom. However, the era of independence did not last long. French forces entered Damascus after the battle of Maysalon on July 24, 1920. In September, the mini-state of Damascus was announced as part of the French mandate plan to divide Syria into states. In 1922, the country's capital was transferred to Homs as part of the Syrian Union, with Damascus as the capital of the Damascus region only remaining, which was canceled in 1925 with the return of Damascus as the capital of the Syrian state.
In 1925, the major Syrian revolution reached Damascus, and Ghouta turned into one of its main strongholds. Perhaps the most prominent stage of that period was the October 18 events, when the rebels seized the neighborhoods of Midan and Al-Shaghour, and reached the market of Al-Bazouriya and Al-Azm, the headquarters of the French High Commission. They expelled all the police elements You have to withdraw. In 1936, Damascus was the spark of the 60s strike, and then the protests of 1939, which led to the dislocation of the French-Senegalese army units and their occupation of the city's squares. During World War II, the Damascus Battle of 1941, which led to allied control by representatives of the British Army and French Free Forces, took place in the city. After the end of World War II, an uprising of independence broke out in Damascus, which saw the bombing of Damascus for the second time, the withdrawal of British forces, and in general, the uprising led to a evacuation. After independence, Damascus was the scene of a number of military coups, the most important of which was the March 1949 coup and the 1954 coup, which started from Aleppo and led to chaos in Damascus for two days, and was marred by looting. In response to the war in Palestine and the establishment of Israel, the city witnessed protests and demonstrations in 1948, during which Jewish sites in the city and a number of diplomatic missions, including the United Nations Headquarters, were subjected to looting and aggression, the biggest of which was the bombing of the church of the candlestick. During the Muslim Brotherhood's rebellion in the 1980s, there were several bombings in Damascus between 1981 and 1986, and car bomb attacks, the biggest of which was the Azbakiyah bombing. The city was affected by the conflict with Israel. Greater Damascus was targeted by Zionist targets in the times of war, such as the June 1967 war, and outside the times of war, such as the assassination of Imad Mughniyeh in 2008, and twice the bombing of the Scientific Research Center in Jamraya in 2013.
The city has developed in terms of services and urban planning, public facilities have increased, and it has become more modern, and huge architectural projects have emerged; The exodus from the countryside to the city and from the Golan and Palestine has also led to the emergence of residential spaces in Damascus, such as Yarmouk and Hajar Aswad.
in the Syrian crisis
The Syrian crisis broke out in March 2011, and Damascus has seen a year of peaceful protests, met with excessive violence by the regime, which created various kinds of opposition protests, which turned into an armed conflict with the regime; On January 6, 2012, the first car bomb in Damascus killed 26 people; The attacks were later repeated. The Damascus volcano and the Syrian earthquake, which targeted senior regime leaders, may be the most important in the city. Also, the battles intensified in the rural areas of Damascus, isolating the city from large parts of its countryside and from some of its suburbs, and led to a large movement of people to the city; In general, there have been frequent clashes in the countryside of Damascus and some of the city's suburbs, such as the Yarmouk camp, as well as attacks on car bombs, mortars and rockets, after the crisis has turned into a form of full militarization; Meanwhile, the city has suffered from high prices, the lack of roads, the heavy spread of security barriers, and the displacement of thousands of areas surrounding Damascus to the safe areas.
The area occupied by Damascus began to be established since the Cretaceous period. At the beginning of the fourth period, the area was covered by a large lake extending from the claw to the conscience. Its shores were about 125 meters above the shores of Lake Al-Otaybah. The Barda and Al-Aouj rivers supply water continuously, in addition to rain, sub-valleys and other seasonal rivers. About 500,000 years ago, there was a relative drought in the climate, and the lake's waters receded until it reached a height of only 15 meters. The decline of the lake led to the formation of the fertile soil of the Damascus Ghouta and the black soil area, as a result of a number of other activities It's only six meters.
Damascus is an inner city about 80km from the Mediterranean Sea off the eastern Lebanon mountain range, located on a plateau of 690m from the sea level, from which Beirut is 85km to the west. Amman is 180km and Jerusalem is 220km to the south. Geography and travelers have noted their good standing since ancient times, as the abundant water of rivers, springs, fertile soil and mild climate contributed to the city's reconstruction and prosperity; And from what the son of Hakel said: "It is the most beautiful city in the Levant, located in a level land." The city extends from the southern foot of Mount Qasyoun eastward to the desert and is surrounded by Ghouta from all sides, standing in the center of Ghouta. The lush orchards were the reason for the existence of Damascus, which was rich throughout the ages, with branches of the Barda river in the north and the Awj in the south, both very diverse in markets covering the city and Ghouta as well. Both rivers are fed by the melting snow of the Eastern Lebanon Range, especially Mount Hermon, which acquired its name because it is always adorned with white snow. Mount Hermon, along with its mountain range, also marks the end and the border of the fertile Damascus plains of the West. The mountain surrounding the city itself, in the west, also to form the "Damascus Wall", is Mount Qasyoun, which is 1,170 meters above sea level and is one of the important tourist city centers. The city covers an area of 105 km2, including the Qasion Mountain, but does not count the 77 km-2 of urban construction.
Neighborhoods and areas
The Old City is the historical foundation of Damascus, and it has a wall and ten historical gates. The Straight Street is divided into Roman architecture and includes a number of prominent landmarks, such as the Citadel, the Umayyad Mosque, the Azm Palace, the Green Palace, and a number of traditional markets; Many of the architectural styles known as Arab Houses, one of Syria's most important tourist attractions, have been on the World Heritage List since 1979. Outside the old city, neighborhoods began to emerge from the thirteenth century with Sarooja, Shaghor, and the field. They continued to grow until the second part of the twentieth century, and the urbanization crept toward the foothills of Qasyoun and the orchards of Ghouta; As a result, towns that are independent of Damascus are now considered part of the city, such as Barzeh, Jubar, and Mazzeh, as well as modern residential construction such as the Demar and Kafr Sousa projects; Damascus is currently divided into 15 regions, divided into 95 neighborhoods. Historically until the beginning of the 20th century, the traditional division of Damascus placed it at eight. In any case, as a result of the expansion of the city, it is attached to its suburbs, which is located under the administration of the Rif Dimashq governorate. Some of these expansions are modern installations, such as Jaramana and Ashrafieh Sahnaya, while others are historical towns like Arbin and Douma; A number of Damascus residents have moved from the city to the suburbs, as the cost of life and real estate prices are lower. It is common - as in many parts of the world - for individuals to settle in the city, while their work is in the suburbs, or vice versa. During the Syrian crisis, the fighting and shelling led to extensive destruction in a large number of these suburbs, in addition to the fact that most of the inhabitants have migrated to Damascus or other areas of Syria.
The climate of Damascus is characterized by being a dry and semi-arid continent. The peaks of the Eastern Lebanon mountain range prevent the effects of the Mediterranean from reaching the city. Otherwise, its openness in the eastern and southeastern parts of the Levant makes it vulnerable to climatic effects from the desert. Temperatures will reach 18 degrees Celsius during the year, exceeding the 40th summer season and dropping about seven degrees during the winter season. Sometimes, below zero, crops will suffer frosts and snow will fall. In general, the annual rainfall in Damascus is not more than 200 mm, and it is irregular to fall, which makes it difficult to rely on in agriculture. However, the tributaries, especially the Bardi River, do not. The wind that blows over Damascus is of two types: the west and south-west winds that are loaded with high humidity levels, and the eastern wind that comes from the desert that usually blows in the summer season, causing an increase in the temperature and usually is loaded with dust.
|Climatic data of Damascus|
|Average Temperature C||54.7||58.6||66.0||76.1||85.5||93.6||97.7||97.2||92.1||82.4||68.5||57.6||77.5|
|mean minimum temperature||32.7||34.3||38.7||44.6||50.9||57.6||62.4||61.7||55.4||48.0||40.8||34.3||46.8|
|The Shower Inch||1.10||0.89||0.67||0.31||0.13||0.02||0.0||0.0||0.01||0.28||0.84||1.02||5.27|
|Average Temperature C||12.6||14.8||18.9||24.5||29.7||34.2||36.5||36.2||33.4||28.0||20.3||14.2||25.3|
|mean minimum temperature||0.4||3.3||3.7||7.0||10.5||14.2||16.9||16.5||13.0||8.9||4.9||3.3||8.2|
According to the 2010 census, Damascus has a combined population of 4.4 million, distributed among 1,724,000 people in Damascus province, 2,701,000 in Rif Dimashq province, 50% of whom are males in Damascus, and about 52% in its countryside. 9.5% of the population, the city is the largest city in the Levant and the fourth in the Arab world. In the administrative city of Damascus without its suburbs, it ranks second in Syria after the city of Aleppo, and a slight difference from Homs, Syria's three million cities.
According to the 2004 census, the total population of the city and its countryside was about 4 million, of which 1.5 million were in the city and 2.5 million were in the countryside. In the 2007 census, the total population in the two provinces was 4.15 million. Rif Dimashq came second after Aleppo with 2,487,000 people, followed by Damascus with 1,669,000, and Homs was fourth with 22,000 more than Damascus. As for the future, the population of Damascus alone is expected to reach 5.6 million by 2025. Its countryside will have a population of 4.6 million, but 80% of the urban sprawl will be towards the countryside, and the percentage of slums in the city's surroundings will increase. We can't get accurate statistics on the historical census of Damascus residents, and overall there is a lot of discrepancy in the statistics recorded. As security, health services, and food availability improved in the second half of the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries, population growth began to stagnate relative to historical rates, doubling over recent decades. According to the latest census in 2010, the city and its rural population reached 4.4 million.
The ethnic composition of the Damascus population is mainly composed of Syrian Arabs, who represent about 95% of the total population, followed by Kurds by 4%. In addition, there are other minorities, namely Armenians, Syriacs, Turkmen, Circassians, Azerbaijanis, Bosniaks and Albanians, who came to Damascus during the Ottoman period, representing the remaining 1%. The vast majority of the population is Muslims, who represent 93% of the city's population, historically from the Sunnis, with the modern migration of the city or its suburbs from all sects. The southern suburb of Sitt Zainab and the Al-Amin Street neighborhood are considered to be a significant ethnic Shia minority, and the northern suburb of Al-Asad and Ash Warwar have a Alawite majority. Christians make up about 7% of the population of Damascus, and they mainly follow the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate and the Greek Catholic Patriarchate in the Levant. The number of Jews remained in Damascus, as it dropped dramatically during the second half of the twentieth century.
The number of students in Damascus and its countryside is large, which makes the city one of the "youth cities." The number of applicants in Damascus for the primary education certificate exams and the secondary school certificate in its various branches is 64,262 students, compared with 42,994 students in its countryside. According to 2001 statistics, the illiteracy rate in the city is only about 5.2% of the population, which is the fourth Syrian province in terms of eradicating illiteracy. However, 33.3% of the population, that is, one third of Damascus, has primary education only. According to the same statistics, only 6.6% of the population have a university degree; Damascus is achieving the best results in this regard. Most of the illiterate and undereducated classes are old, most of the new generations are fully educated, while the dropout rate is only 7% of the total.
According to Article 5 of the constitution of Syria, Damascus is the capital of the country, and thus is the headquarters of the central government and the state's sovereign bodies, such as the presidency, the government, the parliament, and also the headquarters of diplomatic missions, and the first diplomatic consulate opened in Damascus is the Consulate of the Holy See in 1762; Most of the foreign mission headquarters are located in the areas of Al-Maliki and Al-Mazza. From an administrative point of view, Damascus is the Syrian province, which is the smallest of the 14 governorates in terms of area, and the only one that was separated from the countryside and the cities of the suburbs, to form another province, the Rif Dimashq governorate, whose headquarters is in Harasta. According to Syrian law, a conservative president is appointed and removed from office, while provincial voters elect a city council to follow up on the day-to-day administrative issues. The Syrian Red Crescent, the Syrian Civil Defense and the Syrian police perform ambulance, fire, emergency, traffic management and internal security duties in the city; Al-Dhahi has its own branches in Rif Dimashq. In the Syrian People's Assembly, since 1990, Damascus has been represented by 29 deputies, which is higher than its right to distribution if the number of voters is distributed proportionately by 10 seats, and is considered one electoral district; Traditionally, Damascus elects the National Democratic Party during the first republic stage, except for the elections of 1961 when the Muslim Brotherhood won 4 seats against 3 for the National Democratic Party and independents for the rest of the seats. This is the last pluralist election that took place in Syria during the second republic.
Traditionally, Damascus is a commercial city, and despite the change in the nature of commercial routes, from traditional caravans to modern means, the city's role as a consumer and production market in Syria, and as an exporter of its products abroad, especially the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) countries, has not stopped. Forty-eight countries have participated in the Damascus International Fair since 1954. It is considered the oldest exhibition in the Middle East, in addition to a number of specialized exhibitions of the lowest importance. In 2012, the first budget for Damascus province was drawn up, with a budget of 25 billion Syrian pounds ($500,000). Ten percent of the budget is allocated for emergency projects, and the rest is for development projects and public services, such as building roads, bridges and digging tunnels. In 2009, the Damascus Stock Exchange opened its first and only stock exchange in Syria. Damascus also has several industrial activities. In addition to traditional industries such as Damascus desserts, the Damascus sword, ceramic vaccinations, and hand textiles of all types, which have a declining role and importance in modern times, the suburbs of Damascus have a number of industrial cities, such as the industrial city of Housh Plus and the city of Adra. heavy industry. As for the real estate market in Damascus, it is booming, according to a report by real estate consultant Cochman Wakefield & Properties, which states that Damascus is the eighth most expensive region in the world in terms of the price of a square meter in 2009.
Although the tourism sector has been completely destroyed by the Syrian crisis, Damascus is considered a tourist city par excellence and has been placed on the list of some of the most important tourist sites in the world; In 2010, the number of foreign tourists in Syria was estimated at 6 million, ranking third in tourism growth. As a result, Damascus has all the elements of the tourism industry, such as hotels, especially traditional Arab homes that have turned into hotels in the old city, modern hotels such as the Forsyzone Hotel and the Sham Hotel, in addition to restaurants, the most famous of which are the Damascus Gate, dance and entertainment halls, and tourist offices to organize trips to different locations.
Since their founding in the mid-twentieth century, Damascus has been the headquarters of Syrian state radio and television, as well as the three national newspapers - Tishreen, Al-Thawra, and Al-Baath; During the period 1963-2004, the Syrian state monopolized the media, outside this period, and since 1878, it found in Damascus special media outlets, especially newspapers and magazines. There are currently more than 60 newspapers and magazines published in Damascus. Damascus is also home to several private radio and television stations, with permanent media offices for a number of regional or international channels; as well as being the headquarters of the official news agency SANA.
In 2005, Damascus had 426 government primary schools, 81 government secondary schools and 47 professional government schools. Its countryside includes 937 primary schools, 130 secondary schools and 81 vocational schools. Since 1963, the Syrian state has been allowing a monopoly of the entire educational sector The capital has witnessed the establishment of numerous national private schools, such as Waha al-Sham, or branches of schools in the Arab region, such as the Al-Shuweifat School. The wealthy classes of society are the only ones heading towards private schools because of their high tuition fees, which do not match the average income of citizens. In 1913, the first contemporary-concept university in Damascus, the School of Law, was established at the end of the Ottoman era. It was the nucleus of the "Syrian University", which was established under the rule of Sobhi Barakat in 1923 and was later referred to the University of Damascus, which is managed by the Syrian government and has 16 colleges and 111111 Higher institutes; The number of students is 115,256 according to the 2007 statistics; In addition to the quasi-free government education, there is parallel education and open education at the University of Damascus; There is also the Syrian Virtual University, the Higher Institute of Management, and the Higher Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology, after allowing the private sector to invest in the field of higher education, a number of private universities, such as the Syrian Private University, the International Arab League, and the International University of Science and Technology, have spread in the suburbs of Damascus.
Damascus has sports facilities for such popular sports as football, basketball, swimming, tennis, table tennis, equestrian and chess. Attention to sports facilities was highlighted following the city's hosting of major sporting events, including the fifth and seventh Arab Games between 1976 and 1992, respectively, and the Arab Youth Festival in 1981, as well as several other smaller events. Damascus is also home to many of the prestigious Syrian Premier League clubs, al-Jaish, al-Wihda and al-Majd. Damascus includes the Al-Faiha Sports City, which includes a football field, closed halls for handball, basketball, volleyball, clubs, judo, weightlifting, gymnastics, tennis courts and swimming pools. There are also three large sports facilities in the city: the Tishreen, Al-Jala, and Al-Abbasiya stadiums. There is also a equestrian field and a shooting range in Sahnaya near Damascus.
Damascus has 43 private hospitals and three large government-run hospitals, the most important of which is Tishreen Hospital and Al-Muwasa University Hospital; The government also manages a number of health centers spread across the 15 Damascus sectors, providing about 2.5 million annual medical services according to official figures. Traditionally, Pemberstans were Damascus's historic hospitals, the most important of which is the Nourish Pemarstan.
The city of Damascus has a traditional style of roofed markets, inside and outside the walls, the most prominent of the roofed Damascus markets. Al-Hamidiya market, Medhat Pasha market, al-Bazouriya market and al-Hareqiya market, as well as specialized markets such as jewelry and jewelry market; In general, 50 traditional and versatile markets can be counted in Damascus; Apart from being of considerable heritage and archeological significance, it is one of the arteries of the economic city so far. In Ottoman Syria, the boom of the "Khanat" - a two-story square in the middle of an open square used in the lower floor as a warehouse for goods and commercial transactions and in the upper floor as a bed for merchants - is especially noticeable. Most of the halls have turned into museums, most notably Khan Asaad Pasha. Modern forms of markets can be divided into two categories: The streets where there are many shops, such as al-Shaalan Street and al-Hamra Street, and some consider Abu Rummana as the commercial center of modern Damascus; and large commercial centers. Damascus has a large number of such centers: Owners of Plaza Mall, Sham City Center, Qasyon Mall, and App Town.
Gardens, shrines and monuments
Traditionally, Mount Qasyoun is the main area for the people of Damascus. In addition to the mountain, the city of Damascus has 172 public parks run by the governorate of Damascus, and 790 private gardens attached to houses; The Damascus Gardens are about 1.4 million square kilometers, the most important of Damascus Public Gardens, the largest of which is Tishreen Park, al-Subki Park, and the Trade Park. The most prominent public monument in the city of Damascus was the installation of the unknown soldier in Mount Qasyoun; The historic Marja Square was erected to mark the city's connection with telegraph, and the Damascus Sword was erected in Umayyad Square, which has become "a symbol of the architectural city of Damascus"; the installation of Salah al-Din al-Ayoubi opposite the castle wall; The Yusuf al-Azma monument is located in the center of the province's square, displaying its sword.
Damascus has 33 public tombs, the most prominent of which is the Bab al-Saghir cemetery and the Dahdah cemetery, which contain the graves of many historical figures; In the two graves, the cost of the grave is approximately 500,000 Syrian pounds, and it is often inherited by the family; The high cost of graves in Damascus is to pay segments of the population to bury their dead in the suburbs, for example in Harasta, the cost of the grave does not exceed 20,000 Syrian pounds. The most prominent of the shrines was the shrine of John Baptist, Yahya, in the Umayyad Mosque, and the shrine of Sitt Zainab in the suburb known as Al-Namim in southern Damascus; Damascus has more than 65 shrines written around it, such as the book of Damascus Hymns with Shrines; These shrines vary from religious figures such as Umm Salma and Hafza bint Omar al-Khattab from the mother of believers, such as Bilal al-Habshi and Dahiya al-Kalbi, princes such as Nour al-Din Zanki, Salah al-Din al-Ayobi, Dhahir Baibars, and scholars such as Muhyi al-Quwatli.
The Role of Culture
The theater was founded in Damascus by Abu Khalil al-Qabbani in the 19th century and is considered the first modern Arab theater; Damascus currently has 25 theaters run by the Ministry of Culture or private entities, spread over 151 theaters, the most prominent of which is the Syrian Opera House in Umayyad Square. The first cinema in Damascus was established in 1916. Damascus now has 36 movie theaters, some of which have been in service since then; Damascus also has nine Syrian museums, the most prominent of which is the National Museum, which includes artifacts from various Syrian provinces, as well as the historic Damascus Museum, which was established to document life in Damascus over centuries. It also has specialized museums such as the Arab Calligraphy Museum, the Syrian Military Museum and seven other museums in the city. In public libraries, al-Dhahiriya Library is one of the largest libraries in the East in terms of ancient manuscripts and preserved books. Recently, it opened the Al-Asad National Library in 1984 to serve as a public library in the city. In addition to the national cultural centers, Damascus also has a number of foreign cultural centers attached to diplomatic missions. The suburbs in the whole province of Rif Dimashq have 132 cultural centers affiliated with the Ministry of Culture.
places of worship
Damascus has about 200 mosques, 36 churches and 10 Jewish churches, of which only two are currently serving offline.
The Umayyad Mosque is the most famous in Damascus and its religious landmarks in general. Some consider it the fourth most famous mosque in Islam, leaving architectural scars on a number of other buildings inside and outside Syria. There are other Ayyubid-Mamluk or Ottoman-style mosques, such as Sulaimaniya Takia, and there are also modern mosques; Mosques in Damascus can be classified as three categories: mosques built as schools and mosques built as shrines. The city is home to three Antioch Patriarchate, most notably the Marimiyah Church and the Olive Church. In addition to these archeological churches, there are modern-style churches, such as the Cross Church in Al-Qada. In addition to places of worship, the authorities managing these places run a number of related institutions, such as the Islamic Studies Complex.
The traditional architectural style in Damascus is what is known in Syria as the Arab House, and it is the architectural basis in the old city, which is distinguished by the streets lined with stones, narrow alleys, and extravagance in decoration and vaccinations. Since the late 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the style of architecture in Damascus has evolved, opening up to various methods imposed by the interventions of foreign architects in the construction of some public installations and then the trends of common European architecture have leaked by local architects who studied in the West; In 1936, French architect Dangeier laid out the first comprehensive plan for the city of Damascus in 1936. He was particularly interested in the planning of main streets and the construction of large circular squares. In 1963, French architect Michel Ecochar carried out a new urban planning for Damascus, which contributed to its extensive expansion towards the mountains and the north. 10, this last planning focused on suburbs and expansion.
The Hejaz Railway Station follows the new classical style, with the tyranny of local elements in decoration, vaccinations and all the details of the internal structure. The Parliament Building is also the same as the Al-Salhiya District, which is dominated by the Mediterranean type, such as the Al-Fayha School. The traditional European style of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century, including many of the Damascus buildings built at that time, most notably the East Hotel; The Al-Assad National Library building, the Opera House building, and the Central Bank are both modern architectural styles.
Transportation routes and yards
The movement of transportation in Damascus is organized by a number of axes and highways equipped with bridges and tunnels. The most prominent of these is the southern bridge that passes over the city of Damascus, connecting it to the countryside, and ending with Shukri al-Quwatli Street in the center of the city; The northern ridge extends 37 kilometers, which connects with the suburbs of Hama passing over the Barada Valley and ending in the Midan neighborhood. Umayyad Square and the Abbasid Square are the most prominent and oldest areas in the heart of the city. The People's Palace complex and the Migrants Bridge are the main pillars of the contract for transportation to the western part of the city, and the Qaboon Complex is the foundation of its eastern section; Traditionally, Marja Square is a downtown square in Damascus. As for the highways outside of Greater Damascus, the oldest of which is the Beirut-Sham highway, which also connects Damascus to the western areas of its countryside, such as al-Zabadani; The second road is the Jordan Road, which links Damascus to the southern governorates to Amman, and the third one to the north to Homs and Aleppo; There is also the Tadmor road and the airport road, east of Damascus.
between 1903 and 1962 the Damascus Tram was used inside the city; As for railways in Damascus, which started in 1895 by linking Damascus to Beirut through several stations on the road, it established in 1900 the Hegazi railway line to connect the city south to Medina and north to Aleppo and Istanbul. However, it has been suspended since World War I and replaced with a local line linking Damascus to Homs and from there to other northern and western provinces; The Syrian government recently unveiled a project to link nearby cities in rural Damascus with the city via railways, while a project to connect the city with Deraa and Quneitra is under way. In 2008, the government announced a plan to build the Damascus metro at the time of the opening of the Green Line, the first phase of which is scheduled for 2015, and the fourth and final phase in 2050. The main airport since 1975 is the Damascus International Airport, 20 kilometers from the city center. It has had 5.5 million passengers during 2010, an increase of 50% from 2004; Prior to Damascus airport, Mezze airport was considered the Damascus Air Gate, and about military use after the opening of Damascus airport.
Public transportation is carried out through taxis or small buses that connect the suburbs of the city with each other. The total number of lines is 100, some of which reach the heart of the city, and others reach the suburbs, with the superiority of taxis. Damascus has been facing an increasing traffic crisis in recent years, with 250 new cars registered every day. There are 40 traffic complexes that need to be resolved. The total shortage of public buses is estimated at 1,800 to 2,200 public buses to meet the city's needs, in addition to the absence of land garages. Car speed in Damascus is a surveillance by the Damascus Traffic Authority, which has distributed counter controls and surveillance cameras to the city's streets.
The culture of the people of Damascus is part of the Syrian culture in general, influential and influenced by it. While Damascus is the origin of the Syrian Al-Arada, the Syrian Al-Shad dance, which has moved to other cities, the traditional styles of singing and the traditional songs of Damascus, the most famous of which are written by Abi Khalil Al-Qabbani, have benefited from the style and style of Aleppo. One of Damascus's most neglected traditions is the holding of special celebrations for birth or circumcision, traditionally held at the age of seven; celebrations in public baths, the presence of storytellers and karkosati or shadow theater; Many historians have detailed the types of celebrations held in Damascus, as well as traditional entertainment and tarab councils, such as Isfahani in the lyrics, from the point of view of Syrian cuisine in Damascus. The city has some types of dishes that it alone specializes in, such as a desert with two fingers. Cars or tourism in Ghouta's orchards or Mount Qasion are a component of Damascus culture, according to historians, Sabot is held in Ghouta every year, and in five fifths of the year it is held in Qasyoun. There is also the celebration of the beginning of spring or Nowruz from all over Damascus. The Syrian dialect prevailing in Damascus is one thousand times heavier than other cities and regions, which distinguishes it; In Syrian drama, and with the series Ayam Shamia in 1992, a new style emerged known as the Syrian Environment Series, which documents the daily lives of Damascus people from all walks of life in the Ottoman Syria or the beginning of the French Mandate. The series Bab Al-Hara achieved in its second season a popular popularity in the Arab world. Despite this, this category of drama attracted wide criticism and a growing number of critics went on to consider it does not convey the reality of Damascus in an honest but distorted way. The Levantine Village was established as the Damascus District of that stage. In 2008, Damascus was chosen as the Capital of Arab Culture, and many of the events and activities were held as part of the celebrations. Many documentary works were published about Damascus for the occasion.
Poetry and literature
|From her hair in describing Damascus|
|A party walk in Damascus||Whatever you want and don't choose|
|It is a garden on earth, so it hopes||How rivers flow beneath them|
|How many poison is in her field, every palace||The moons rose up|
|And give you good news||It fell on the string|
|It's all kindergarten and water||. and reconstruction palaces and homes|
|And Ezz Al-Sharq is first Damascus.|
Throughout history, Damascus has been described and praised in many international literature by travelers, poets, and novelists, some of whom are foreigners like the French Lamartine, and others are Arab. Praising Damascus in Arabic literature goes back to before Islam even. Hassan bin Thabet praised Damascus for a few verses; The most prominent of Damascus's praise in ancient literature is Al-Bahri, Abbi Tammam in poetry, Ibn Jubayr and Al-Maqdisi in the literature of trips. She also wrote independent works describing Damascus, such as "The Shining Stars in the News of Damascus and Cairo" and "Nahdha Al-Nam". Recently, since the Arab renaissance in the 19th century, most prominent Arab poets, whether Syrian or non-Syrian, have written about Damascus, including Ahmad Shawki, Mahmoud Darwish, Saeed Aql, Omar Abu Reesha, Nizar Qabbani, Bechara al-Khoury and others. These works were collected at the Damascus Bureau, which was launched to celebrate the celebration of Damascus as the capital of Arab culture; Some of them turned to songs like my poem, Sham Ya The Sword, and I read your glory to Saeed Aql, which was sung by Fairuz, and the Damascene poem by Nizar Qabbani, which was sung by Asala Nasri.
The sister cities of Damascus are:
| || |
- Timeline of Damascus.
- List of Damascus flags.
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- Syrian Constitution of 1920, Article 1; Syrian Constitution of 1930, Article 3; Syrian Constitution of 1950, Article 5; Syrian Constitution of 1973, Article 5; Syria's constitution, 2012, Article 5. The exception is the 1922 constitutional declaration, which stipulates that the capital city is Homs, and it continued until December 31, 1924 within the Syrian Union.
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- Before then, Damascus was the capital for short periods between 115 and 95 BC by Antiochus IX; After 635, the capital was briefly transferred from Damascus from 1922 to 1924, when the capital of Homs was part of the Syrian Federation. Most historians, however, tend to consider Muslim conquest as the final transfer of the capital from Antioch. See Damascus Al Fayha, p.16
- Damascus Al Fayha, P.50
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- Damascus, the oldest inhabited city in history, discovered Syria, January 5, 2014. Archived version of February 25, 2018 on Wipac Mechen.
- Bronze Age, discovered Syria, January 5, 2014. Archived version of February 25, 2018 on Wipac Mechen.
- Damascus Al-Fayha, p.12
- Syria State Creation, p.112
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- Aramaic Kingdoms, Democratic Aramaic Trend, January 5, 2014. Archived version of January 16, 2017 at Ypak Mecin.
- Aramaic kingdoms, discovered Syria, January 5, 2014. Archived version of February 25, 2018 on Wipac Mechen.
- Syria State Creation, p.114
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- The history of Damascus during the era of Copts A copy saved on March 7, 2016 on the website Ypak Mecin.
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- A summary of the history of Damascus, Damascus, February 5, 2012. Archived version March 24, 2013 at Ypak Mecin. “Archived Copy.” Archived from the original on March 24, 2013. See it on January 4, 2018. mediator
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- Damascus in the Abbasid Era, P.65
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- The Toulon discovered Syria, July 26, 2011.
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- [The Nourisan], The Storyteller, July 26, 2011.
- Damascus: History (in English), Ross Burns, 2005, p. 147 Copies saved June 29, 2017 on the Wiback Machine website.
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- Damascus in the Mamluk Age, p.68
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- History of Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, Philip Hitti, modern printing press, Beirut 1983, p.314.
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- Old Damascus, Discover Syria, December 30, 2013. 14 November 2017 Y-Pak Action Blog.
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- Green Palace, Discover Syria, December 30, 2013. Archived Version of February 10, 2018 on Wipac Mechen.
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- This is what we did in Innocence of Damascus, Syria News, December 23, 2013. Archived version of December 24, 2013 at Wipac Mechen.
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- Damascus, Damascus, p.126
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- Damascus International Fair, Sham Times, December 30, 2013. Photo courtesy of Wayback Meshen, December 30, 2013.
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- "Surour: Damascus budget is 25 billion, the largest in the history of the province, and the priority is to development and service projects." Originally dated March 04, 2016. See it on August 31, 2013. mediator
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- Damascus Stock Exchange, Syrian investor, December 30, 2013. Archived version of December 18, 2017 at Ypak Mecin.
- Damascus is the eighth most expensive region in the world, more expensive than New York, the Arab Economic Forum, December 30, 2013. Archived version of December 31, 2013 at Yapac Meshen.
- Damascus prices are more expensive than New York, Syria News, December 30, 2013. Archived version of April 18, 2015 at Yapac Meshen.
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- Syria ranks third in terms of tourism growth, SANA, December 28, 2013. Archived version of December 30, 2013 at Yapac Machine.
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- Al-Faiha Sports City A copy saved January 25, 2018 on the website Ypak Mecin.
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- Damascus, Fighter, December 28, 2013. Archived Version of April 15, 2019 at Yapac Meshen.
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- The most important park in the city of Damascus, Damascus Flowers, December 25, 2013.
- The Damascus Sword was installed in Al-Wahda newspaper, December 25, 2013. Archived version of January 05, 2013 at Wipac Mechen.
- Statue of Yusuf Al-Azma, Al-Watan, December 25, 2013. Archived Version of April 17, 2015 on Wipac Mechen.
- A New Tomb in Adra, Syrian Economist, December 25, 2013.
- 33 graveyards within the geographic space of the capital, the traveler, December 26, 2013. A copy saved on January 22, 2014 on the website of Yapac Meshen.
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- Damascus Marimiyah Cathedral, Al-Thawra newspaper, December 27, 2013. Archived version March 25, 2013 at Ypak Mecin.
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- Damascus architecture and its interaction with architectural heritage and modern international architecture. Archived May 09, 2017 at Wipac Meshen.
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- A historical overview, Syrian Ministry of Transport, December 27, 2013. Archived version of December 28, 2013 at Wipac Mechen.
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- Damascus Governorate Site.
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